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How Wealth Inequality Spiraled Out of Control | Robert Reich

Elon Musk's wealth has surpassed $200 
billion. It would take the median U.S. worker OVER 4 MILLION YEARS to make that much.
Wealth inequality is eating this country alive. We’re now in America’s second Gilded Age, just like the late 19th century when a handful 
of robber barons monopolized the economy kept wages down, and bribed lawmakers. While today’s robber barons take joy rides 
into space, the distance between their gargantuan wealth and the financial struggles 
of working Americans has never been clearer. During the first 19 months of the 
pandemic, U.S. billionaires added $2.1 TRILLION dollars to their collective wealth. And the rich have enough political power   to cut their taxes to almost nothing 
— sometimes literally nothing. In fact, Jeff Bezos paid no federal 
income taxes in 2007 or in 2011. By 2018, the 400 richest Americans paid a 
lower overall tax rate than almost anyone else. But we can't solve this problem unless we 
know how it was created in the first place. Let’s start with the basics. Wealth inequality in America is 
far larger than income inequality. "Income" is what you earn each week or month or 

"Wealth" refers to the sum total of your assets — your car, home, art — anything else
you own that’s valuable. Valuable not only because there’s 
a market for it — a price other people are willing to pay to buy it — but because wealth itself grows. As the population expands and the 
nation becomes more productive, the overall economy continues to expand. This 
expansion pushes up the values of stocks, bonds, rental property, 
homes, and most other assets. Of course recessions and occasional depressions 
can reduce the value of such assets. But over the long haul, the value 
of almost all wealth INCREASES. Next: personal wealth comes from two sources. The first source is the income you earn 
but don’t spend. That’s your savings. When you invest those savings in stocks, 
bonds, or real property or other assets, you create your personal wealth, which,
as we’ve seen, grows over time.

The second source of personal wealth is whatever 
is handed down to you from your parents, grandparents, and maybe even generations 
before them — in other words, what you INHERIT. The wealth gap between the richest 
Americans and everyone else is staggering. In the 1970s, the wealthiest 1% owned about 
20% of the nation’s total household wealth. Now, they own OVER 35%.
Much of their gains over the last 40 years have come from a dramatic 
increase in the value of shares of stock. For example, if someone invested $1,000 in 1978 in 
a broad index of stocks — say, the S&P 500 — they would have $31,823 today, adjusted for inflation. Who's benefited from this surge? The richest 1%, who now own 
HALF of the entire stock market. But the typical worker’s wages have 
barely grown. Most Americans haven’t earned nearly enough to save anything. Before the pandemic, when the economy appeared to be doing well, almost 80% were living paycheck to paycheck. So as income inequality has widened, the 
amount that the few high-earning households save — their wealth — has continued to grow.
Their growing wealth has allowed them to pass on more and more wealth to their heirs.  Take, for example, the Waltons
— the family behind the Walmart empire — which has seven heirs on the Forbes billionaires list.

Their children, and other rich 
millennials, will soon consolidate even more of the nation’s wealth. America is 
now on the cusp of the largest intergenerational transfer of wealth in history. 
As wealthy boomers pass on, somewhere between $30 to $70 TRILLION will go 
to their children over the next three decades. These children will be able to 
live off of this wealth, and then leave the bulk of it — which will continue 
growing — to their own children … tax-free. After a few generations of this, 
almost all of America’s wealth could be in the hands of a few thousand families. Concentrated wealth is already 
endangering our democracy. Wealth doesn’t just beget more 
wealth — it begets more POWER.

Dynastic wealth concentrates power into 
the hands of fewer and fewer people, who can choose what nonprofits and charities 
to support, and which politicians to bankroll. This gives an unelected elite enormous sway 
over both our economy and our democracy. We might come to resemble the kind of dynasties 
common to European aristocracies in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries.
Dynastic wealth makes a mockery of the idea that America is a meritocracy, where anyone can 
make it on the basis of their own efforts.  It also runs counter to the basic economic ideas 
that people earn what they’re worth in the market,   and that economic gains
should go to those who deserve them.

Finally, wealth concentration magnifies gender and 
race disparities because women and people of color tend to make less, save less, and inherit less. The typical single woman owns only 32 cents of   wealth for every dollar of wealth owned by a man. The pandemic likely increased this gap.  The racial wealth gap is even 
starker. The typical Black household   owns just 13 cents of wealth for every dollar 
of wealth owned by the typical white household.   The pandemic likely increased this gap, too.
In all these ways, dynastic wealth creates a   self-perpetuating aristocracy that runs 
counter to the ideals we claim to live by. The last time America faced anything 
comparable to the concentration of wealth   we face today was at the turn of the 20th century.  That was when President Teddy Roosevelt warned 
that “a small class of enormously wealthy and   economically powerful men, whose chief 
object is to hold and increase their power,”   could destroy American democracy.
Roosevelt’s answer then was to tax wealth. Congress enacted two kinds of wealth taxes. The first, in 1916, was the estate  tax — a tax on the wealth someone has 
accumulated during their lifetime,   paid by the heirs who inherit that wealth.
The second tax on wealth, enacted in 1922, was a capital gains tax — a tax on the increased 
value of those assets, paid when those assets are sold.

But both of these wealth taxes have shrunk 
since then, or become so riddled with loopholes   that they haven’t been able to prevent a 
new American aristocracy from emerging.  The Trump Republican tax cut enabled individuals 
to exclude $11.18 million from their estate taxes.   That means ONE COUPLE can pass on more 
than $22 million to their kids tax-free. Not to mention the very rich often find ways 
around this tax entirely. As Trump’s former White   House National Economic Council director Gary Cohn
put it, “Only morons pay the estate tax.” What about capital gains on the soaring 
values of wealthy people’s stocks,   bonds, mansions, and works of art?
Here, the biggest loophole is something called the   stepped-up basis.

If the wealthy hold on to their 
assets until they die, their heirs inherit them without paying any capital gains taxes whatsoever.
All the increased value of those assets is simply erased, for tax purposes. This loophole 
saves heirs an estimated $40 billion a year. This means that huge accumulations of wealth 
in the hands of a relatively few households can be passed from generation to generation 
untaxed — growing along the way — generating comfortable incomes for rich descendants who 
will never have to work a day of their lives. That’s the dynastic class 
we’re creating right now. Why have these two wealth taxes eroded? 
Because, as America’s wealth has concentrated in fewer and fewer hands, the wealthy have more 
capacity to donate to political campaigns and public relations — and they’ve used that 
political power to reduce their taxes. It’s exactly what Teddy Roosevelt 
feared so many years ago. So what do we do? Follow the wisdom of Teddy 
Roosevelt and tax great accumulations of wealth.  The ultra-rich have benefited from the American 
system — from laws that protect their wealth,   and our economy that enabled them to 
build their fortunes in the first place.   The majority of Americans, both   Democrats and Republicans, believe the 
ultra-rich should pay higher taxes.  There are many ways to make them do so:   Closing the stepped up basis loophole, raising 
the capital gains tax, and fully funding the Internal Revenue Service so it can properly 
audit the wealthiest taxpayers, for starters.

Beyond those fixes, we need a new wealth 
tax: a tax of just 2% a year on wealth   in excess of $1 million.
That’s hardly a drop in the bucket for   centi-billionaires like Jeff Bezos and Elon Musk, 
but it would generate plenty of revenue to invest in   healthcare and education so that millions 
of Americans have a fair shot at making it. One of the most important things you as an 
individual can do is take the time to understand the realities of wealth inequality in America 
and how the system has become rigged in favor of   those at the top — and demand your political 
representatives take action to unrig it.  Wealth inequality is worse 
than it has been in a century.  We have to stop this vicious cycle — and demand an 
economy that works for the many, not one that   concentrates more and more wealth 
in the hands of a privileged few.

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Growing Wealth Inequality In The World And America

Growing Wide Range Inequality worldwide and also
America Let’s beginning with some terrifying stats. Right here, wealth describes a cumulative total amount
of a family’s financial as well as genuine assets however doesn’t include financial debt. Statistics from the 2018 Global Wide Range Record
by Debt Suisse show that 1% of the globe’s richest very own 45% of the World’s wealth. Individuals in the 1% have estimated assets
of greater than $1 million. Grownups whose wealth is cumulative to less
than $10,000 hold just 2% of the globe’s wealth.These individuals

comprise 64% of the earth’s. populace.
Yes, an entire 64%. Individuals worth $30 million as well as above are.
described as the ultra-high internet well worth people, that makes feeling since $30 million is a.
great deal of cash. These people, incorporated, have a portion of.
the globe’s wealth, at 11.3%. In regards to population, however, they are.
sorely lacking in numbers, at only 0.003%. Jeff Bezos, Costs Gates, Warren Buffet, Amancio.
Ortega, Mark Zuckerberg, Bernard Arnault, Carlos Slim, Larry Ellison, and Larry Page.
are the nine richest guys on the planet. Their combined wide range, according to Forbes.
in January 2018 was 687.6 billion. This figure is equal to the overall wide range.
of; get this, 4 billion of the poorest people in the globe. This is to suggest, in regards to riches, if you.
place these 9 gents on one side of the scale (or see-saw if you prefer), you would certainly need.
an excellent 4 billion of the globe’s poorest beyond in order to stabilize it out.These figures represent the shocking wealth. inequality in between the abundant as well as the poor on the planet at huge, yet what is even more stressing.
is that these numbers keep expanding each year. Your House of Commons in the UK estimated that.
by 2030, 1% of the richest people in the world will certainly have two-thirds of the globe’s.
wide range. Is there a way to rein this in? These figures are in fact concerning, as well as.
eventually, they would certainly cause a poorer world. What are the factors for this inequality? What are the steps that can be taken to fix.
this problem? Closer Home.
America makes quite a substantial portion of the globes’ richest, as well as it is, therefore,.
not a surprise that the riches inequality here would be equally as disconcerting. In 1982, the richest man on the Forbes 400.
Wealthiest in America was worth a modest $2 billion. In 2018, to make it to the Forbes 400, you.
had to be worth at the very least $2.1 billion. The wealthiest male in America, who is the richest.
Now, allow us relocate to homes. In the very first quarter of 2017, the complete net.
worth of US houses together with charitable organizations was $94.7 trillion. The presumption would be that when separated.
among the complete number of houses, each would certainly get an equivalent share which equates.
to about $760,000. However, 50% of the total number of families.
throughout this quarter was worth just $11,000. 1% of this country’s richest.
hold 40% of the total riches. On the various other hand, 7% of the country’s wide range.
is held by almost 80% of the population. You can plainly recognize the fad in these.
figures. The rich are incredibly abundant as well as the bad extremely.
As well: and it is a vicious circle that maintains spinning.This widening gap might not have been as disturbing. if we had more people on the rich side. Instead, you will certainly determine that many individuals. hold much less than 10% of the globe ' s wealth.
The major factor behind riches inequality is income inequality. Earnings inequality comes as a result of the. This cost is typically determined with
a. comparison of the demand for the skill ability and and also number of people who are willing to.
for the work, its market price would certainly go down because one means or the other, the task placement.
is going to be filled. We live each time when most jobs have a low. market value, but some exclusive
ones have really couple of certified persons. The market cost difference of. both is the very first means with which riches inequality starts. Education is another primary factor for the expanding. wide range inequality in the world today, America most especially.The degree of education one obtains is normally. symmetrical to the ability
she or he is most likely to obtain. As stated over, the much more marketable the. skill, the greater the marketplace cost for it.
At the exact same time, even though education might. be totally free for all, the quality of education is
in some cases influenced by the environment and also. area the school lies in.
Schools discovered in areas with a better. socio-economic course tend to generate pupils with a much better chance of obtaining an extremely valuable. skill.Such colleges are additionally more than likely to promote.
intelligence, personal drive, and also self-control, all features required to make riches.
The resultant revenue inequality leads to a. significant gap in riches. The reverse holds true for poorer communities. As has actually been seen in recent times, the development. of modern technology has actually considerably motivated a boost in the wide range void in between the rich and the. bad. A great deal of people have actually been forced to.
leave the work market as their job is taken over by machines and other types of technology.
A phone driver benefiting a Telco business.
40 years, domestic workers will lose their job to artificial intelligence.Similarly, the growth in modern technology has actually produced. The wealthiest man in the world, Jeff Bezos made. Following him carefully is Costs Gates, yet one more.
These rich characters are increasingly. rich, as they use a solution most can not
find anywhere else. The richer they get, and as hands-on workers. lose their jobs to innovation, the broader the space in between the very abundant and also the very. poor obtains. One more variable that boosts this gap in between.
the rich and also bad is the tax obligation systems in place.The tax obligation code in the majority of nations worldwide.
In the UK, over 10 million words are used. Do you believe these words are to assist the bad. It’s certainly debatable.
The wide range gap between the inadequate and the abundant. is substantial. It is triggered by fairly a number
of elements,. some beyond our control, some not so much. The very best means to manage this inequality.
This means ensuring an equivalent as well as quality requirement.
As well as I will certainly see you all, in the next one. 5 Routines Keeping You Poor. Every month you seem to always have just enough … or have you ever been in an awkward scenario in which your credit scores card obtained declined.

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