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How to Have the Perfect Portfolio in Investment – John Bogle’s view

But now this brings us to the main point of 
our discussion with you which is to get your   advice for our viewers about what you consider 
to be the perfect portfolio now we know there's   no such thing as perfect but i suspect that TIFs 
will play some role in this what would you say to   the typical investor now today looking forward how 
should we be managing our wealth well let me um i   tried to cover this you'd be surprised at some of 
the what i've done in the asset allocation chapter   of my book a little bit because i've come to 
conclusion there's really not a very good answer   and i've concluded that regular rebalancing is not 
terrible but not necessary i've come to conclude   that it's 60%, 40% portfolio is probably the best 
option rather than going from 80 20 to 20 80 in a   target retirement plan uh maybe right and i may 
be wrong on that and i find it something very   individual uh and and you know and clearly i mean 
everybody knows this intuitively at the beginning   there are no easy answers to this so i'll come 
to exactly what i'm doing uh but what i was what   i did i got a letter from clearly a young man 
who was really worried about how he should be   investing and what his allocation should be and he 
said you know the dangerous risky world out there   and he didn't mention it but of course he's right 
you have potential nuclear war global warming much   more than just potential and racial division in 
the country uh right now uh threats to world trade   and division of wealth all over the world but 
most often very heavily in the us between the   haves and the have-nots all those things 
are worth worrying about but i said to him   you don't know and i don't know what's going to 
happen to any of them the market doesn't know   nobody knows so you just have to put them out of 
your mind and forget it what you want to think   about is how much risk you can afford and that's 
very much a personal thing and it has a little bit   to do with whether you're investing regularly 
and things like that and then i said to him if   it's helpful to you i'll tell you what i'm doing 
now i'm 88 years old and have an unusual kind of   planning my estate and i said i'm 50 bonds and 50 
stocks i don't happen to rebalance around that it   just seems to come out that way particularly in 
recent years and uh it's been higher than that   and been lower than that but right 
now i'm very comfortable at 50 50.   although i spend half my time worrying that i have 
too much in stocks and the other half of my time   worrying that i have too little in stock and i 
think that's the way most investors feel they   don't know what the right number is and when the 
market's going up they say god why don't i have   more stocks when it's going down so your own worst 
enemy in all this yes but having some stability   without automatically rebalancing i don't think 
you need to do that and and it's very clear   you know and anybody understanding economist 
certainly understands this that the more the   less you rebalance the more you're going to 
have because you're always selling the better   performing asset and you don't know whether it 
will do in the long run but i also look at it   as as very importantly uh and this is this is kind 
of an interesting thing i think the most important   thing you need to know about the performance 
of the stock market in the next 30 40 50 years   is what is the GDP of the united states going to 
do corporate profits are correlated at 96 percent   s p dividends are correlated at 96 percent with 
with the gdp of the united states the GDP doesn't   grow quite as fast but not a big difference 
6.7 compared to 7.5 or something like that   and then they'd be nominal and uh i think so 
what interests me is in peter lynch's book   something about wall street uh one up on 
wall street or something he says there's no   number that could interest him less than the gdp 
number is it going up or down and what that is is a statement that the short term is more 
important than the long term and i don't   believe this the short term is more important than 
long term and then you even get in freakonomics   those wise guys they did a nice interview with 
me i'm heard all of it yet but i will someday   um say pay no attention to the GDP well it's 
everything right but it's not everything today   and tomorrow right you know the gdp probably 
rose today about two three hundred and sixty   fifths of one percent or something whatever it 
is uh and uh we don't pay any attention to it   but it all comes down to for your you know the 
best portfolio is are you an investor or are you   a speculator and if you're going to keep changing 
things you were speculating because we can't know   if you're going to put commodities in there the 
ultimate speculation it has nothing going for it   no internal rate of return no dividend yield no 
earnings growth no interest coupon nothing except   the hope largely vain probably that you can sell 
to somebody else for more than you paid for it   how that could be even considered goals 
let's say an investment uh i do not know so   it's i'd like to take the mystery out of it and 
say that the perfect portfolio first i think for   a huge proportion over 90 percent certainly of 
the investors should be limited to marketable   securities they don't need the liquidity today but 
and we may have you know too much marketability   and that is too much sensitivity to prices as they 
change day by day but you want to get out of the   idea that you always have to do something and uh 
i have said in my books and you know something   happens and the federal reserve does something 
and the traders all at the beginning of the day i   think it's going to cause the market to go down so 
they sell and everybody else says it has nothing   to do with anything for you and when you hear news 
and your broker calls up and says do something   just tell them my rule is don't 
do something just stand there   and it's it's a lot of the rules that apply 
to the investment are not rules that apply to   ordinary life right and uh so don't do something 
just stand there so get a rough idea of what you   want to allocate your money to now i i do i'm 
really entirely indexed at my 50 50.

Uh although   oh my and i can't give you the proportions 
because i don't remember them but   my bonds that are in my retirement plan are 
bond index funds and the bonds that are in my   my uh personal account are municipal vanguard 
missile bond short intermediate and so i'm   reasonably comfortable with that so i think 
i'm too conservative for the average investor   so i'd say the perfect portfolio and it should 
be well let me just mention one other issue and   try a little bit differently uh blair academy i 
have a scholarship fund that i'm allowed to manage   and i don't i don't want to spend any time on 
and i don't so here is exactly what i've done   on the assumption that nobody will touch it for 
a long time and when i'm gone i mean maybe they   will maybe they won't but what i did this is 
probably ten years ago um we say put half of   it in Wellington Fund and have it balanced index 
fund the idea was not all on balance index fund   because there could be things that happen that a 
manager needs to adjust to neither of them have   an international component and that's fine with 
me that's i believe that's the better strategy so   that's and they would be together 90 of the fund 
and then against two contingencies um just in case   i put five percent in the emerging market index 
and i hope you're sitting down five percent in   gold really yeah in the event just a five percent 
hedge against some kind of catastrophe now   i wouldn't call that the perfect portfolio but 
i i mentioned only because that's one there's   distinctive meaning you cannot touch it and uh at 
least theoretically can't touch it it's designed   to be held through all extremes and so that's 
going to give you with the two balanced funds   uh roughly 62 percent in equities that's going to 
be with wellington fund more corporate bonds than   the index fund has i think the index is something 
that we should be very very careful about because   it has the one of a better expression too damn 
much in governments right i don't think any   individual would have a a bond account 70 in 
governments and 30 corps right maybe it should   be the reverse i think that makes more sense can 
i prove that no i'm sorry i can't so it's looking   at the long term looking at the numbers looking 
at cost above all there's no there's no ideal   portfolio perfect portfolio that ignores cost 
now you know i've seen these articles saying   well for example commodities no internal rate 
of return silly including gold except that's the   if nobody's gonna nobody's looking and we 
have something explosive that will help and   it probably shouldn't hurt you too much this 
portfolio actually had done rather well in the   last couple of years and it's fine in the long 
run and uh so you know and actually it may be   doing better than my own but i don't but i look at 
my performance because i'm so conservative right   uh i look at i look at the funds yeah but it's 
almost all indexed and i do have wellington fund   from those days with Mr Morgan and i wouldn't give 
that up as a sentimental matter but but i should

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401K to Gold IRA Rollover

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401K Explained in தமிழ் (US Retirement Series – 1)

This episode and next few episodes are going to be US specific episodes. All these US specific episodes will have US flag in their thumbnails. Indian audience, feel free to skip these episodes and save your time. US folks, there are 2 main retirement plans in USA. 1. 401K and 2. IRA. We will cover more in detail about IRA in another episode. In this episode, we will cover 401K in detail. Hi. My name is Vijay Mohan. You are watching – Investment Insights. 401K is a retirement plan offered thru employer.

We will not be able to open a 401K account just by ourself like a brokerage account. We can contribute to a 401K, only if it is offered through our employer. Almost all employers offer 401K plan. Very few small companies do not offer 401K. How much can we contribute to a 401K? Each employee can save up to $20,500 per year. If husband and wife both are working, both can contribute $20,500 each. People older than 50 can contribute more – $27,000/year. That is called as "Catch up contribution". Other than our contribution to 401K, many employers match up our contribution up to certain percentage. Let's say that an employer is matching up to 7%. If our salary is $100K, 7% of that would be $7,000. Let's say that we are contributing $20,500 to our 401k and maxing it out. Employer would have matched up the first $7,000 of that $20,500 and would have contributed that $7,000 to our 401K.

So in total, our contribution $20,500 + employer match up contribution $7,000 = $27,500 would have gone into our 401K account. Employer match of $7,000 would not come under the contribution limit of $20,500. This match is over that contribution limit. In this employer match, each employer has a catch called "Vesting Schedule". This vesting schedule defines when that extra amount matched up by the employer is going to actually credit in our account. Let's say that an employer has a vesting schedule of 2 years, then in that 2 years, the match up amount contributed by the employer will be in our account, but not vested. That means, if we leave the job within the 2 years of joining, then we will not get that matched up amount. But after 2 years, that matched up amount will be ours totally, even if we leave the job. Also, after that vesting period of 2 years, all money matched up by the employer will be vested (available) to us immediately. That means, there will not be any restriction over the matched up money after passing 2 years.

The 2 years I am referring here is just an example. It will be different for every employer. So what is the advantage to us from this 401K? The advantage is, we do not have to pay the tax on the amount we are contributing to 401K. But we should pay tax on withdrawal after retirement. What? No tax for the contributed money, but taxed on withdrawal? What benefit does that offer to us? Good question. To understand that, we should know about our tax bracket.

What we are seeing here is 2022 Married Filing Jointly tax bracket. Let's say that our family income is $120,000. We will come under 22% tax bracket. That does not mean that we will be paying 22% tax for the whole $120,000 we earned. First 20,000 of $120,000 will be taxed at 10%. Next 63,000 will be taxed at 12%. Money earned over that will be taxed at 22% tax. So the 22% tax is charged for the top most dollar we made in that year. This is called as Marginal Tax rate. If we add up all the taxes for individual brackets of 10%, 12% and 22%, that comes out to $17,634. This is 14.7% of our total income $120,000. So actually we are paying only 14.7% of our income as tax. This 14.7% is called "Effective Tax Rate". May confuse between marginal tax rate and effective tax rate. Hope it is clear now. So when we contribute $20,500 to our 401K, it comes out of our top most tax bracket. That means, the tax we saved from the contribution of $20,500 is 22%. $4510. If we withdraw the same $20,500 after our retirement, the tax rate for that would be 10%.

Tax saved for contribution is 22%, while money coming out is taxed at 10%. The difference is 12% in our favor. Or in other words, we save tax in marginal tax rate for contribution and we pay effective tax rate while withdrawal. We all know that effective tax rate will be always lower than the marginal tax rate. This is first advantage. Let's check out a sample calculation to understand the next advantage. Let's say that our family income is $120,000. Then federal marginal tax rate is 22%. Let's use Illinois state tax rate – 5%. For 401K contribution, not just the federal tax, we don't have to pay the state tax as well. Let's assume that our 401K will be growing at 8% growth rate.

We are maxing out our 401K contribution every year by contributing 20,500/year. Tax savings from this contribution is 27%. $5535. We are continuing to do this till our retirement for 25 years. By the end of 25 years, our 401K balance would have reached 1 million 600,000 dollars. The $5535 that we saved every year in tax alone would have grown into $437,000. The absolute tax saved is 5355 * 25 = $138,000. The growth from that savings is approximately $300,000. Or in other words, just because we did not pay (deferred) the tax of $138,000, the extra growth we got from that is $300,000. The growth of money by deferring (not paying the tax now) the taxes to pay later is called as "Tax deferred Compounding". This tax deferred compounding is 401K's second advantage. For these 2 advantages, we can contribute to 401K. We should. So far we have seen a regular pretax 401K. There are other flavors of 401K like Roth 401K and After tax 401K. We will dig deeper into that in the next episode. Thank You..

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401K to Gold IRA Rollover

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Mastering the FIRE Method: The Ultimate Guide to Early Retirement & Financial Independence

at some point of time you would have thought of retiring early or maybe you're thinking of it now and truth be told retirement is not about abandoning work there are very few who would say I won't work any further but what we yearn for is the freedom to operate to live life in the way we want and that brings us to the five moment now fire stands for financial Independence retirement it's a very catchy acronym and to put it in a nutshell it's a program that's designed around saving aggressively investing in high return instruments like equities and disciplined withdrawals which put together ensures you have enough money to cover your living expenses for the rest of your life and therefore retire early in this video I shall be explaining the concept in Greater details we look at the implementation steps some calculations and why fire needs to be a deliberate part of your financial life this might be a short video but it's a very powerful concept so let's begin the concept of fire was popularized in a book titled your money or your life it was built around self-sufficiency control over one's time moderate consumption and of course living life outside the nine to five for instance this guy Pete atney who is better known as Mr Money Mustache applied the fire principles which allowed him to retire from his job as a software engineer at the age of 30.

He's 48 now and he continues to live comfortably of his Investments after so many years and it's not just Pete there are writers bloggers people traveling the world software developers and even YouTubers who are using these principles to lead a more open life and have attached some articles and videos in the description to that effect some of these stories are really inspirational and it proves the fact that a little bit of planning on the financial side can have a profound impact on other aspects of one's life and in a very positive way now there are three parts one needs to address when implementing a fire strategy the first step is savings and the hardcore fire disciple is expected to save anywhere from 50 to 70 percent of one's monthly income this is of course easier said than done and probably where a lot of people make up their mind that this is not their cup of tea but from what I have read and what I've experienced the saving need not be always defined as a percentage and we can also work with absolute numbers which we'll see when I come to the calculations part now when we hear the word saving our first reaction or response is on reducing our expenses however money can also be saved by upping one's income which is what I suggest and it does make sense right I mean there is a limit to what one can save but income generation has a much longer Runway and in our case it can include taking a part-time job doing some consultancy work asking for a pay hike changing jobs for a better salary reskilling oneself or of course starting a side hustle which can be a mix of active and passive work in fact I have a friend in Bangalore who works as a data scientist from Monday to Friday and then on the weekends he takes classes on an edtech platform and also does some consultancy work to put it in numbers what was earlier a monthly saving of 50 000 Rupees is now easily over 2 lakhs a month and this guy has absolutely changed his life around by leveraging what he knows so he's on fire metaphorically speaking and the the fire strategy encourages us to find creative and better ways of increasing our savings rate the Second Step under the fire strategy is to spend wisely notice I didn't say don't spend I said spend wisely which means you need to identify what is an essential expense and what can be tagged as discretionary now people who practice Fire have a ton of helpful advice for us these include driving a good used car instead of a new one renting versus buying a house cooking at home rather than eating out track your daily expenses cancel unnecessary subscriptions Etc from what I've read these small steps can reduce your monthly expenses by up to 30 percent which if you choose to look at it differently is like getting a 30 incremented salary so you don't have to be stinky when it comes to your expenses but try to be a bit more rational about it and the third and final pillar in the fire system is the investment part now on a basic level the system requires advisors to invest as much money as you can and as early as possible so it's the principle of compounding at work here and this table here is a handy guide to how well your Corpus expands when you give it the necessary capital and a decent amount of time to grow now the fire method keeps this investing part ridiculously simple one you invest some money every month or as we call it you set up an sip a systematic investment plan and secondly this money is invested in a low cost Index Fund or ETF which in our case is either the nifty 50 or maybe a slightly broader Nifty 500 Index so essentially the focus here is to participate in the equity markets rather than actively trying to beat it which by my Reckoning should Fetchers and analyze return of 12 to 13 percent again the idea here is to maximize the returns which is why equities have been suggested but if that makes you a little uncomfortable then you can also settle for a mix of different asset classes which is something I explained in my video on asset allocation a few weeks back yet another investment you can make which is encouraged under the fire movement is on account of passive income dividends from stocks interest from your fixed deposits income from your blog your podcast YouTube channel monetization rental income are just some ways of making an Roi from physical or virtual assets now notice I have put this part under Investments and not income because passive income does require a lot of upfront work but once you do the hard work and you do it well one can expect a continuous stream of income over the next few years which will not only support your early retirement Ambitions but will also act as a safety net in fact there is something called an fi Ratio or the financial Independence ratio which largely means if your passive income is greater than your expenses then you're making some great progress on the path to financial Independence so to sum it up remember fire has three simple principles that you need to work on which is save more spend less and invest wisely if you're getting good value from this video then please do give this video a thumbs up and if you aren't a subscriber yet then do consider becoming one as I can then serve you videos as soon as they are released and also share with you some investing strategies tips and stories that are continually Post in the community section the original fire formula is based on the four percent rule which is the amount of saving you can safely withdraw every year without worrying that your money will run out for example let's say you are 29 years old and your monthly expenses are around 50 000 rupees if you want to retire at 40 then you have 11 years to accumulate a retirement fund so here's the math if household inflation is likely to grow by eight percent per annum then the 50 000 you spend now will rise to 1 lakh 16 000 rupees by the time you're 40.

So annually this comes to 14 lakh rupees and per the four percent rule it's 14 multiplied by 25 which means you need to accumulate a couples of three and a half crores to safely navigate through your retirement years or at least that's what the fire formula says now in my view there are some gaps with this four percent rule that I think we should all be aware of firstly this rule is okay for someone who has factored 25 maybe 30 years of retirement but if the retirement Horizon goes higher let's say 50 years for example then this formula starts getting a bit shaky and I've pinned a research study by Vanguard on this in the video's description secondly the four percent rule is a United States origination of the 1990s and has been tested on a historical basis when the yields on equities and Bonds were sufficiently high now we are not Americans and what works there will most likely not work for us which means there's an asset allocation and a market performance risk which needs to be accounted for and finally because each of us have our own preferences income goals saving patterns Etc I always felt it's important to have a customized fire implementation plan rather than picking something off the shelf which is why I created my own fire calculator which gives a clearer picture of how much I need to accumulate when can I idly retire how much withdrawals can I do on a monthly basis and at what point and in what circumstances my retirement money can run out so this obviously starts with the inputs and you need to type in your current age the age at which you want to retire and of course your life expectancy which I hope is strong and long then comes your current portfolio of Investments and this includes your mutual funds fds ppf EPF gold and other stuff and as a best practice kindly exclude the cost of the house where you will be staying post your retirement if you're still working then input the monthly savings and the annual increase you foresee input the expected returns from your investment the capital gain tax that can remain at 10 percent and finally have a view on how much will your expenses be in the first year of retirement and the expected household inflation rate and once we have these numbers keyed in as I have shown in this example the resulting output should clearly tell us three things one the amount of investment Corpus we need at the time of retirement which in this illustration is 2.2 crores at the age of 40.

Secondly we now have Clarity on how much can be spent on an early basis which starts from 12 lakhs so that's one lakh per month and it increases by eight percent every year and thirdly we get to know how sound or unsound this entire construct is like in this case our calculation shows that I'll run out of my money by the time I am 64 years old which is another way of saying that I need to rework my fire math which can include an increase in the monthly savings and the growth rate I can also consider extending my retirement age to a higher number let's say 45 years and finally I I can be a little careful with my expenses and instead of spending a lack of rupees maybe I can make do with 90 000. so there are many permutations and combinations you can look at but my suggestion is try to be a little conservative in your estimates especially when it comes to return on investment the inflation rate and the post retirement monthly expenses now for your benefit I have enclosed the link of this worksheet in the video's description it's a downloadable sheet all the formulas are open so feel free to change the numbers improve the formula if required add your own customization if it helps you but have a clear idea on when and where you need to be on the path to financial Independence so when I first heard and read about fire I was not a big fan of it I mean saving 50 to 7 20 percent of one salary is almost next to Impossible and I would have shut sharp had I not realized that as a method fire is quite flexible and can be used in many different ways so the calculator is one way and you can make a customized version of it but then there are more strategies there are more variants of the fire strategy and if you are interested then do read up on lean fire fat fire Coast fire and a few more of these in related articles that I've Linked In the video's description the point is and I myself realized a very late in life that many of us don't know when to retire how much is needed to retire which is why we continue working in a role or occupation that we don't enjoy much and that's where I think fire as a strategy might be the solution and it's just three things right increase your income and savings lower your expenses and get your Investments right so read up more about this concept in the Articles and websites I've added in the description and I sincerely hope you practice some sort of fire going forward if you found this video useful then do press the like button do subscribe to my channel share this video and I'll see you three days from now until then foreign

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Retirement Planning Home

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Building Wealth (Ep.2) – Delayed Gratification (தமிழ்)

We went through the importance of "Developing Financial Knowledge" in the last episode. If you have not watched it yet, please watch that first. Today we are going to watch the second episode in the series "Building Wealth". Delayed Gratification Gratification means – We all have our own desires right? When we attain those desires, we get this great satisfaction right? That satisfaction is what is called "Gratification" in English. "Isn't attaining our desires is a good thing? Why should we delay?" – you ask. Explaining that is the purpose of this episode. If "Financial Knowledge" is the architect of building wealth, "Savings Rate" is its foundation. Our foundation will be as strong as our savings rate. We already know this from "Financial Freedom" episode. Most of us will achieve 20% savings rate easily. But to go beyond that, we need to know some strategies. Normally what we do is, we keep upgrading our lifestyle in line with our earnings. We will be with four roommates when we start working.

In 2-3 years, our salary will double. When that happens, we upgrade ourselves from 4 room mates to 1 room mate. Then in 2-3 years, we get married. Then we upgrade ourselves to a one bedroom apartment. Then in 2 years, we upgrade to a two bedroom apartment. Then after kids, we buy our own home. So depending on our career growth, we keep upgrading our lifestyle. Then expenses add up with kids, school fees and so on. It never comes down. After 40 years, we will come to a sudden realization, that we have crossed half our life time, but all that left is just our home as asset.

We start thinking about retirement and investments only after that. But by that time, we will have other responsibilities. Saving for kids college, marriage become our priorities. Just like that, our life would just pass away. Next generation will follow the same pattern as well. How can we build wealth if we live like this? Life of a US settled person is also very similar to this. But they do one more thing after 40. They sell their current home and upgrade to a bigger home. So we are keep upgrading our life style depending on our financial growth from our career. Regardless of how much we earn, we spend to match that earnings growth.

If we want to break this cycle and move to next level, there is just only one option. That is – Delayed Gratification. That is – instead of enjoying the life upgrades immediately we can postpone it to some time, and attain financial growth. Before we check out on how we can do that, a small tidbit about "Delayed Gratification". In 1960's, Stanford University conducted a psychological experiment called "Marshmallow Experiment" with kids.

Marshmallow is something that looks like a thicker version of Cotton Candy. It is white and super sweet. Kids love it. They used 3.5 to 5.5 years old kids for this experiment. What they did was, They asked a kid to stay inside a room and they put a marshmallow on a plate in front of them. They made a deal with that kid. The deal is – I will leave the room now. But will be coming back after 15 mins. If you have not eaten the marshmallow by the time I come back, you will get two marshmallows instead of one. So – the kid has two choices. There is a marshmallow right in front of kid's eyes. Instead of waiting for another marshmallow for 15 mins, the kid can eat one right now. Or wait for 15 mins and eat two marshmallows instead of one. When we hand over a fish to a cat, is it possible for the cat not to eat the fish? 7 out of 10 kids ate the marshmallow immediately. But 3 out of 10 kids controlled their temptation and waited for the second marshmallow successfully.

Stanford University did not stop their research at that. They followed these kids for 40 years to see how they are doing in their life. The kids who waited patiently settled better in their life. They did well in their college entrance exams. They did not fall addicted to any drugs. They did not have obesity issues. They used their "Self Control" capability totally to their advantage. What we learn from here is, people who have a strong mindset and who do not get distracted easily are very disciplined and they set up a goal for themselves and attain it as well. They do not think in short term. They plan for long term and achieve it successfully.

We will see this "Long Term Planning" more in detail in another episode. Coming back to our topic – "Life Upgrade" How many upgrades do we see in our adult life? We upgrade from 4 room mates to 1. We upgrade from 1 room mate to separate apartment. From 1 BR we upgrade to 2 Bedroom. From 2 Bedroom, we upgrade to own house. Even for own house, we again upgrade to a bigger home. All these are housing upgrades. Like this, We upgrade from pubic transportation to bike. From bike to car. From car to luxury car. These are upgrades in our personal vehicle. We don't do these upgrades without a reason. We do it to match our earnings. If we do not upgrade our life styles along with our earnings growth, but delay it by 2 to 3 years – what happens then? The salary rise will go directly to our savings rather than for life upgrades and will increase our savings rate.

If the savings rate increases, the foundation of "wealth building" will be super strong. Think about it. If our whole life is 80 years, Its not really a big deal to delay our upgrades for 3-5 years. We are going to attain all these anyways. Its just that we are going to do it bit later. So, we have two choices. 1. Live in the moment by upgrading our lifestyle depending on our earnings growth. Or 1. Postpone the upgrades for a while and use that savings to build a strong nest egg so that we can even pass our wealth to next generation.

The choice is ours. Now we can see the benefits that we can get out of "Delayed Gratification" at high level. We will see how we can apply this strategically in different stages of life in next episode. Thank You..

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Retire Wealthy Home

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How to Have the Perfect Portfolio in Investment – John Bogle’s view

But now this brings us to the main point of 
our discussion with you which is to get your   advice for our viewers about what you consider 
to be the perfect portfolio now we know there's   no such thing as perfect but i suspect that TIFs 
will play some role in this what would you say to   the typical investor now today looking forward how 
should we be managing our wealth well let me um i   tried to cover this you'd be surprised at some of 
the what i've done in the asset allocation chapter   of my book a little bit because i've come to 
conclusion there's really not a very good answer   and i've concluded that regular rebalancing is not 
terrible but not necessary i've come to conclude   that it's 60%, 40% portfolio is probably the best 
option rather than going from 80 20 to 20 80 in a   target retirement plan uh maybe right and i may 
be wrong on that and i find it something very   individual uh and and you know and clearly i mean 
everybody knows this intuitively at the beginning   there are no easy answers to this so i'll come 
to exactly what i'm doing uh but what i was what   i did i got a letter from clearly a young man 
who was really worried about how he should be   investing and what his allocation should be and he 
said you know the dangerous risky world out there   and he didn't mention it but of course he's right 
you have potential nuclear war global warming much   more than just potential and racial division in 
the country uh right now uh threats to world trade   and division of wealth all over the world but 
most often very heavily in the us between the   haves and the have-nots all those things 
are worth worrying about but i said to him   you don't know and i don't know what's going to 
happen to any of them the market doesn't know   nobody knows so you just have to put them out of 
your mind and forget it what you want to think   about is how much risk you can afford and that's 
very much a personal thing and it has a little bit   to do with whether you're investing regularly 
and things like that and then i said to him if   it's helpful to you i'll tell you what i'm doing 
now i'm 88 years old and have an unusual kind of   planning my estate and i said i'm 50 bonds and 50 
stocks i don't happen to rebalance around that it   just seems to come out that way particularly in 
recent years and uh it's been higher than that   and been lower than that but right 
now i'm very comfortable at 50 50.   although i spend half my time worrying that i have 
too much in stocks and the other half of my time   worrying that i have too little in stock and i 
think that's the way most investors feel they   don't know what the right number is and when the 
market's going up they say god why don't i have   more stocks when it's going down so your own worst 
enemy in all this yes but having some stability   without automatically rebalancing i don't think 
you need to do that and and it's very clear   you know and anybody understanding economist 
certainly understands this that the more the   less you rebalance the more you're going to 
have because you're always selling the better   performing asset and you don't know whether it 
will do in the long run but i also look at it   as as very importantly uh and this is this is kind 
of an interesting thing i think the most important   thing you need to know about the performance 
of the stock market in the next 30 40 50 years   is what is the GDP of the united states going to 
do corporate profits are correlated at 96 percent   s p dividends are correlated at 96 percent with 
with the gdp of the united states the GDP doesn't   grow quite as fast but not a big difference 
6.7 compared to 7.5 or something like that   and then they'd be nominal and uh i think so 
what interests me is in peter lynch's book   something about wall street uh one up on 
wall street or something he says there's no   number that could interest him less than the gdp 
number is it going up or down and what that is is a statement that the short term is more 
important than the long term and i don't   believe this the short term is more important than 
long term and then you even get in freakonomics   those wise guys they did a nice interview with 
me i'm heard all of it yet but i will someday   um say pay no attention to the GDP well it's 
everything right but it's not everything today   and tomorrow right you know the gdp probably 
rose today about two three hundred and sixty   fifths of one percent or something whatever it 
is uh and uh we don't pay any attention to it   but it all comes down to for your you know the 
best portfolio is are you an investor or are you   a speculator and if you're going to keep changing 
things you were speculating because we can't know   if you're going to put commodities in there the 
ultimate speculation it has nothing going for it   no internal rate of return no dividend yield no 
earnings growth no interest coupon nothing except   the hope largely vain probably that you can sell 
to somebody else for more than you paid for it   how that could be even considered goals 
let's say an investment uh i do not know so   it's i'd like to take the mystery out of it and 
say that the perfect portfolio first i think for   a huge proportion over 90 percent certainly of 
the investors should be limited to marketable   securities they don't need the liquidity today but 
and we may have you know too much marketability   and that is too much sensitivity to prices as they 
change day by day but you want to get out of the   idea that you always have to do something and uh 
i have said in my books and you know something   happens and the federal reserve does something 
and the traders all at the beginning of the day i   think it's going to cause the market to go down so 
they sell and everybody else says it has nothing   to do with anything for you and when you hear news 
and your broker calls up and says do something   just tell them my rule is don't 
do something just stand there   and it's it's a lot of the rules that apply 
to the investment are not rules that apply to   ordinary life right and uh so don't do something 
just stand there so get a rough idea of what you   want to allocate your money to now i i do i'm 
really entirely indexed at my 50 50.

Uh although   oh my and i can't give you the proportions 
because i don't remember them but   my bonds that are in my retirement plan are 
bond index funds and the bonds that are in my   my uh personal account are municipal vanguard 
missile bond short intermediate and so i'm   reasonably comfortable with that so i think 
i'm too conservative for the average investor   so i'd say the perfect portfolio and it should 
be well let me just mention one other issue and   try a little bit differently uh blair academy i 
have a scholarship fund that i'm allowed to manage   and i don't i don't want to spend any time on 
and i don't so here is exactly what i've done   on the assumption that nobody will touch it for 
a long time and when i'm gone i mean maybe they   will maybe they won't but what i did this is 
probably ten years ago um we say put half of   it in Wellington Fund and have it balanced index 
fund the idea was not all on balance index fund   because there could be things that happen that a 
manager needs to adjust to neither of them have   an international component and that's fine with 
me that's i believe that's the better strategy so   that's and they would be together 90 of the fund 
and then against two contingencies um just in case   i put five percent in the emerging market index 
and i hope you're sitting down five percent in   gold really yeah in the event just a five percent 
hedge against some kind of catastrophe now   i wouldn't call that the perfect portfolio but 
i i mentioned only because that's one there's   distinctive meaning you cannot touch it and uh at 
least theoretically can't touch it it's designed   to be held through all extremes and so that's 
going to give you with the two balanced funds   uh roughly 62 percent in equities that's going to 
be with wellington fund more corporate bonds than   the index fund has i think the index is something 
that we should be very very careful about because   it has the one of a better expression too damn 
much in governments right i don't think any   individual would have a a bond account 70 in 
governments and 30 corps right maybe it should   be the reverse i think that makes more sense can 
i prove that no i'm sorry i can't so it's looking   at the long term looking at the numbers looking 
at cost above all there's no there's no ideal   portfolio perfect portfolio that ignores cost 
now you know i've seen these articles saying   well for example commodities no internal rate 
of return silly including gold except that's the   if nobody's gonna nobody's looking and we 
have something explosive that will help and   it probably shouldn't hurt you too much this 
portfolio actually had done rather well in the   last couple of years and it's fine in the long 
run and uh so you know and actually it may be   doing better than my own but i don't but i look at 
my performance because i'm so conservative right   uh i look at i look at the funds yeah but it's 
almost all indexed and i do have wellington fund   from those days with Mr Morgan and i wouldn't give 
that up as a sentimental matter but but i should

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401K to Gold IRA Rollover

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Mastering the FIRE Method: The Ultimate Guide to Early Retirement & Financial Independence

at some point of time you would have thought of retiring early or maybe you're thinking of it now and truth be told retirement is not about abandoning work there are very few who would say I won't work any further but what we yearn for is the freedom to operate to live life in the way we want and that brings us to the five moment now fire stands for financial Independence retirement it's a very catchy acronym and to put it in a nutshell it's a program that's designed around saving aggressively investing in high return instruments like equities and disciplined withdrawals which put together ensures you have enough money to cover your living expenses for the rest of your life and therefore retire early in this video I shall be explaining the concept in Greater details we look at the implementation steps some calculations and why fire needs to be a deliberate part of your financial life this might be a short video but it's a very powerful concept so let's begin the concept of fire was popularized in a book titled your money or your life it was built around self-sufficiency control over one's time moderate consumption and of course living life outside the nine to five for instance this guy Pete atney who is better known as Mr Money Mustache applied the fire principles which allowed him to retire from his job as a software engineer at the age of 30.

He's 48 now and he continues to live comfortably of his Investments after so many years and it's not just Pete there are writers bloggers people traveling the world software developers and even YouTubers who are using these principles to lead a more open life and have attached some articles and videos in the description to that effect some of these stories are really inspirational and it proves the fact that a little bit of planning on the financial side can have a profound impact on other aspects of one's life and in a very positive way now there are three parts one needs to address when implementing a fire strategy the first step is savings and the hardcore fire disciple is expected to save anywhere from 50 to 70 percent of one's monthly income this is of course easier said than done and probably where a lot of people make up their mind that this is not their cup of tea but from what I have read and what I've experienced the saving need not be always defined as a percentage and we can also work with absolute numbers which we'll see when I come to the calculations part now when we hear the word saving our first reaction or response is on reducing our expenses however money can also be saved by upping one's income which is what I suggest and it does make sense right I mean there is a limit to what one can save but income generation has a much longer Runway and in our case it can include taking a part-time job doing some consultancy work asking for a pay hike changing jobs for a better salary reskilling oneself or of course starting a side hustle which can be a mix of active and passive work in fact I have a friend in Bangalore who works as a data scientist from Monday to Friday and then on the weekends he takes classes on an edtech platform and also does some consultancy work to put it in numbers what was earlier a monthly saving of 50 000 Rupees is now easily over 2 lakhs a month and this guy has absolutely changed his life around by leveraging what he knows so he's on fire metaphorically speaking and the the fire strategy encourages us to find creative and better ways of increasing our savings rate the Second Step under the fire strategy is to spend wisely notice I didn't say don't spend I said spend wisely which means you need to identify what is an essential expense and what can be tagged as discretionary now people who practice Fire have a ton of helpful advice for us these include driving a good used car instead of a new one renting versus buying a house cooking at home rather than eating out track your daily expenses cancel unnecessary subscriptions Etc from what I've read these small steps can reduce your monthly expenses by up to 30 percent which if you choose to look at it differently is like getting a 30 incremented salary so you don't have to be stinky when it comes to your expenses but try to be a bit more rational about it and the third and final pillar in the fire system is the investment part now on a basic level the system requires advisors to invest as much money as you can and as early as possible so it's the principle of compounding at work here and this table here is a handy guide to how well your Corpus expands when you give it the necessary capital and a decent amount of time to grow now the fire method keeps this investing part ridiculously simple one you invest some money every month or as we call it you set up an sip a systematic investment plan and secondly this money is invested in a low cost Index Fund or ETF which in our case is either the nifty 50 or maybe a slightly broader Nifty 500 Index so essentially the focus here is to participate in the equity markets rather than actively trying to beat it which by my Reckoning should Fetchers and analyze return of 12 to 13 percent again the idea here is to maximize the returns which is why equities have been suggested but if that makes you a little uncomfortable then you can also settle for a mix of different asset classes which is something I explained in my video on asset allocation a few weeks back yet another investment you can make which is encouraged under the fire movement is on account of passive income dividends from stocks interest from your fixed deposits income from your blog your podcast YouTube channel monetization rental income are just some ways of making an Roi from physical or virtual assets now notice I have put this part under Investments and not income because passive income does require a lot of upfront work but once you do the hard work and you do it well one can expect a continuous stream of income over the next few years which will not only support your early retirement Ambitions but will also act as a safety net in fact there is something called an fi Ratio or the financial Independence ratio which largely means if your passive income is greater than your expenses then you're making some great progress on the path to financial Independence so to sum it up remember fire has three simple principles that you need to work on which is save more spend less and invest wisely if you're getting good value from this video then please do give this video a thumbs up and if you aren't a subscriber yet then do consider becoming one as I can then serve you videos as soon as they are released and also share with you some investing strategies tips and stories that are continually Post in the community section the original fire formula is based on the four percent rule which is the amount of saving you can safely withdraw every year without worrying that your money will run out for example let's say you are 29 years old and your monthly expenses are around 50 000 rupees if you want to retire at 40 then you have 11 years to accumulate a retirement fund so here's the math if household inflation is likely to grow by eight percent per annum then the 50 000 you spend now will rise to 1 lakh 16 000 rupees by the time you're 40.

So annually this comes to 14 lakh rupees and per the four percent rule it's 14 multiplied by 25 which means you need to accumulate a couples of three and a half crores to safely navigate through your retirement years or at least that's what the fire formula says now in my view there are some gaps with this four percent rule that I think we should all be aware of firstly this rule is okay for someone who has factored 25 maybe 30 years of retirement but if the retirement Horizon goes higher let's say 50 years for example then this formula starts getting a bit shaky and I've pinned a research study by Vanguard on this in the video's description secondly the four percent rule is a United States origination of the 1990s and has been tested on a historical basis when the yields on equities and Bonds were sufficiently high now we are not Americans and what works there will most likely not work for us which means there's an asset allocation and a market performance risk which needs to be accounted for and finally because each of us have our own preferences income goals saving patterns Etc I always felt it's important to have a customized fire implementation plan rather than picking something off the shelf which is why I created my own fire calculator which gives a clearer picture of how much I need to accumulate when can I idly retire how much withdrawals can I do on a monthly basis and at what point and in what circumstances my retirement money can run out so this obviously starts with the inputs and you need to type in your current age the age at which you want to retire and of course your life expectancy which I hope is strong and long then comes your current portfolio of Investments and this includes your mutual funds fds ppf EPF gold and other stuff and as a best practice kindly exclude the cost of the house where you will be staying post your retirement if you're still working then input the monthly savings and the annual increase you foresee input the expected returns from your investment the capital gain tax that can remain at 10 percent and finally have a view on how much will your expenses be in the first year of retirement and the expected household inflation rate and once we have these numbers keyed in as I have shown in this example the resulting output should clearly tell us three things one the amount of investment Corpus we need at the time of retirement which in this illustration is 2.2 crores at the age of 40.

Secondly we now have Clarity on how much can be spent on an early basis which starts from 12 lakhs so that's one lakh per month and it increases by eight percent every year and thirdly we get to know how sound or unsound this entire construct is like in this case our calculation shows that I'll run out of my money by the time I am 64 years old which is another way of saying that I need to rework my fire math which can include an increase in the monthly savings and the growth rate I can also consider extending my retirement age to a higher number let's say 45 years and finally I I can be a little careful with my expenses and instead of spending a lack of rupees maybe I can make do with 90 000. so there are many permutations and combinations you can look at but my suggestion is try to be a little conservative in your estimates especially when it comes to return on investment the inflation rate and the post retirement monthly expenses now for your benefit I have enclosed the link of this worksheet in the video's description it's a downloadable sheet all the formulas are open so feel free to change the numbers improve the formula if required add your own customization if it helps you but have a clear idea on when and where you need to be on the path to financial Independence so when I first heard and read about fire I was not a big fan of it I mean saving 50 to 7 20 percent of one salary is almost next to Impossible and I would have shut sharp had I not realized that as a method fire is quite flexible and can be used in many different ways so the calculator is one way and you can make a customized version of it but then there are more strategies there are more variants of the fire strategy and if you are interested then do read up on lean fire fat fire Coast fire and a few more of these in related articles that I've Linked In the video's description the point is and I myself realized a very late in life that many of us don't know when to retire how much is needed to retire which is why we continue working in a role or occupation that we don't enjoy much and that's where I think fire as a strategy might be the solution and it's just three things right increase your income and savings lower your expenses and get your Investments right so read up more about this concept in the Articles and websites I've added in the description and I sincerely hope you practice some sort of fire going forward if you found this video useful then do press the like button do subscribe to my channel share this video and I'll see you three days from now until then foreign

As found on YouTube

Retirement Planning Home

Read More

Mastering the FIRE Method: The Ultimate Guide to Early Retirement & Financial Independence

at some point of time you would have thought of retiring early or maybe you're thinking of it now and truth be told retirement is not about abandoning work there are very few who would say I won't work any further but what we yearn for is the freedom to operate to live life in the way we want and that brings us to the five moment now fire stands for financial Independence retirement it's a very catchy acronym and to put it in a nutshell it's a program that's designed around saving aggressively investing in high return instruments like equities and disciplined withdrawals which put together ensures you have enough money to cover your living expenses for the rest of your life and therefore retire early in this video I shall be explaining the concept in Greater details we look at the implementation steps some calculations and why fire needs to be a deliberate part of your financial life this might be a short video but it's a very powerful concept so let's begin the concept of fire was popularized in a book titled your money or your life it was built around self-sufficiency control over one's time moderate consumption and of course living life outside the nine to five for instance this guy Pete atney who is better known as Mr Money Mustache applied the fire principles which allowed him to retire from his job as a software engineer at the age of 30.

He's 48 now and he continues to live comfortably of his Investments after so many years and it's not just Pete there are writers bloggers people traveling the world software developers and even YouTubers who are using these principles to lead a more open life and have attached some articles and videos in the description to that effect some of these stories are really inspirational and it proves the fact that a little bit of planning on the financial side can have a profound impact on other aspects of one's life and in a very positive way now there are three parts one needs to address when implementing a fire strategy the first step is savings and the hardcore fire disciple is expected to save anywhere from 50 to 70 percent of one's monthly income this is of course easier said than done and probably where a lot of people make up their mind that this is not their cup of tea but from what I have read and what I've experienced the saving need not be always defined as a percentage and we can also work with absolute numbers which we'll see when I come to the calculations part now when we hear the word saving our first reaction or response is on reducing our expenses however money can also be saved by upping one's income which is what I suggest and it does make sense right I mean there is a limit to what one can save but income generation has a much longer Runway and in our case it can include taking a part-time job doing some consultancy work asking for a pay hike changing jobs for a better salary reskilling oneself or of course starting a side hustle which can be a mix of active and passive work in fact I have a friend in Bangalore who works as a data scientist from Monday to Friday and then on the weekends he takes classes on an edtech platform and also does some consultancy work to put it in numbers what was earlier a monthly saving of 50 000 Rupees is now easily over 2 lakhs a month and this guy has absolutely changed his life around by leveraging what he knows so he's on fire metaphorically speaking and the the fire strategy encourages us to find creative and better ways of increasing our savings rate the Second Step under the fire strategy is to spend wisely notice I didn't say don't spend I said spend wisely which means you need to identify what is an essential expense and what can be tagged as discretionary now people who practice Fire have a ton of helpful advice for us these include driving a good used car instead of a new one renting versus buying a house cooking at home rather than eating out track your daily expenses cancel unnecessary subscriptions Etc from what I've read these small steps can reduce your monthly expenses by up to 30 percent which if you choose to look at it differently is like getting a 30 incremented salary so you don't have to be stinky when it comes to your expenses but try to be a bit more rational about it and the third and final pillar in the fire system is the investment part now on a basic level the system requires advisors to invest as much money as you can and as early as possible so it's the principle of compounding at work here and this table here is a handy guide to how well your Corpus expands when you give it the necessary capital and a decent amount of time to grow now the fire method keeps this investing part ridiculously simple one you invest some money every month or as we call it you set up an sip a systematic investment plan and secondly this money is invested in a low cost Index Fund or ETF which in our case is either the nifty 50 or maybe a slightly broader Nifty 500 Index so essentially the focus here is to participate in the equity markets rather than actively trying to beat it which by my Reckoning should Fetchers and analyze return of 12 to 13 percent again the idea here is to maximize the returns which is why equities have been suggested but if that makes you a little uncomfortable then you can also settle for a mix of different asset classes which is something I explained in my video on asset allocation a few weeks back yet another investment you can make which is encouraged under the fire movement is on account of passive income dividends from stocks interest from your fixed deposits income from your blog your podcast YouTube channel monetization rental income are just some ways of making an Roi from physical or virtual assets now notice I have put this part under Investments and not income because passive income does require a lot of upfront work but once you do the hard work and you do it well one can expect a continuous stream of income over the next few years which will not only support your early retirement Ambitions but will also act as a safety net in fact there is something called an fi Ratio or the financial Independence ratio which largely means if your passive income is greater than your expenses then you're making some great progress on the path to financial Independence so to sum it up remember fire has three simple principles that you need to work on which is save more spend less and invest wisely if you're getting good value from this video then please do give this video a thumbs up and if you aren't a subscriber yet then do consider becoming one as I can then serve you videos as soon as they are released and also share with you some investing strategies tips and stories that are continually Post in the community section the original fire formula is based on the four percent rule which is the amount of saving you can safely withdraw every year without worrying that your money will run out for example let's say you are 29 years old and your monthly expenses are around 50 000 rupees if you want to retire at 40 then you have 11 years to accumulate a retirement fund so here's the math if household inflation is likely to grow by eight percent per annum then the 50 000 you spend now will rise to 1 lakh 16 000 rupees by the time you're 40.

So annually this comes to 14 lakh rupees and per the four percent rule it's 14 multiplied by 25 which means you need to accumulate a couples of three and a half crores to safely navigate through your retirement years or at least that's what the fire formula says now in my view there are some gaps with this four percent rule that I think we should all be aware of firstly this rule is okay for someone who has factored 25 maybe 30 years of retirement but if the retirement Horizon goes higher let's say 50 years for example then this formula starts getting a bit shaky and I've pinned a research study by Vanguard on this in the video's description secondly the four percent rule is a United States origination of the 1990s and has been tested on a historical basis when the yields on equities and Bonds were sufficiently high now we are not Americans and what works there will most likely not work for us which means there's an asset allocation and a market performance risk which needs to be accounted for and finally because each of us have our own preferences income goals saving patterns Etc I always felt it's important to have a customized fire implementation plan rather than picking something off the shelf which is why I created my own fire calculator which gives a clearer picture of how much I need to accumulate when can I idly retire how much withdrawals can I do on a monthly basis and at what point and in what circumstances my retirement money can run out so this obviously starts with the inputs and you need to type in your current age the age at which you want to retire and of course your life expectancy which I hope is strong and long then comes your current portfolio of Investments and this includes your mutual funds fds ppf EPF gold and other stuff and as a best practice kindly exclude the cost of the house where you will be staying post your retirement if you're still working then input the monthly savings and the annual increase you foresee input the expected returns from your investment the capital gain tax that can remain at 10 percent and finally have a view on how much will your expenses be in the first year of retirement and the expected household inflation rate and once we have these numbers keyed in as I have shown in this example the resulting output should clearly tell us three things one the amount of investment Corpus we need at the time of retirement which in this illustration is 2.2 crores at the age of 40.

Secondly we now have Clarity on how much can be spent on an early basis which starts from 12 lakhs so that's one lakh per month and it increases by eight percent every year and thirdly we get to know how sound or unsound this entire construct is like in this case our calculation shows that I'll run out of my money by the time I am 64 years old which is another way of saying that I need to rework my fire math which can include an increase in the monthly savings and the growth rate I can also consider extending my retirement age to a higher number let's say 45 years and finally I I can be a little careful with my expenses and instead of spending a lack of rupees maybe I can make do with 90 000.

So there are many permutations and combinations you can look at but my suggestion is try to be a little conservative in your estimates especially when it comes to return on investment the inflation rate and the post retirement monthly expenses now for your benefit I have enclosed the link of this worksheet in the video's description it's a downloadable sheet all the formulas are open so feel free to change the numbers improve the formula if required add your own customization if it helps you but have a clear idea on when and where you need to be on the path to financial Independence so when I first heard and read about fire I was not a big fan of it I mean saving 50 to 7 20 percent of one salary is almost next to Impossible and I would have shut sharp had I not realized that as a method fire is quite flexible and can be used in many different ways so the calculator is one way and you can make a customized version of it but then there are more strategies there are more variants of the fire strategy and if you are interested then do read up on lean fire fat fire Coast fire and a few more of these in related articles that I've Linked In the video's description the point is and I myself realized a very late in life that many of us don't know when to retire how much is needed to retire which is why we continue working in a role or occupation that we don't enjoy much and that's where I think fire as a strategy might be the solution and it's just three things right increase your income and savings lower your expenses and get your Investments right so read up more about this concept in the Articles and websites I've added in the description and I sincerely hope you practice some sort of fire going forward if you found this video useful then do press the like button do subscribe to my channel share this video and I'll see you three days from now until then foreign

As found on YouTube

Retirement Planning Home

Read More

Mastering the FIRE Method: The Ultimate Guide to Early Retirement & Financial Independence

at some point of time you would have thought of retiring early or maybe you're thinking of it now and truth be told retirement is not about abandoning work there are very few who would say I won't work any further but what we yearn for is the freedom to operate to live life in the way we want and that brings us to the five moment now fire stands for financial Independence retirement it's a very catchy acronym and to put it in a nutshell it's a program that's designed around saving aggressively investing in high return instruments like equities and disciplined withdrawals which put together ensures you have enough money to cover your living expenses for the rest of your life and therefore retire early in this video I shall be explaining the concept in Greater details we look at the implementation steps some calculations and why fire needs to be a deliberate part of your financial life this might be a short video but it's a very powerful concept so let's begin the concept of fire was popularized in a book titled your money or your life it was built around self-sufficiency control over one's time moderate consumption and of course living life outside the nine to five for instance this guy Pete atney who is better known as Mr Money Mustache applied the fire principles which allowed him to retire from his job as a software engineer at the age of 30.

He's 48 now and he continues to live comfortably of his Investments after so many years and it's not just Pete there are writers bloggers people traveling the world software developers and even YouTubers who are using these principles to lead a more open life and have attached some articles and videos in the description to that effect some of these stories are really inspirational and it proves the fact that a little bit of planning on the financial side can have a profound impact on other aspects of one's life and in a very positive way now there are three parts one needs to address when implementing a fire strategy the first step is savings and the hardcore fire disciple is expected to save anywhere from 50 to 70 percent of one's monthly income this is of course easier said than done and probably where a lot of people make up their mind that this is not their cup of tea but from what I have read and what I've experienced the saving need not be always defined as a percentage and we can also work with absolute numbers which we'll see when I come to the calculations part now when we hear the word saving our first reaction or response is on reducing our expenses however money can also be saved by upping one's income which is what I suggest and it does make sense right I mean there is a limit to what one can save but income generation has a much longer Runway and in our case it can include taking a part-time job doing some consultancy work asking for a pay hike changing jobs for a better salary reskilling oneself or of course starting a side hustle which can be a mix of active and passive work in fact I have a friend in Bangalore who works as a data scientist from Monday to Friday and then on the weekends he takes classes on an edtech platform and also does some consultancy work to put it in numbers what was earlier a monthly saving of 50 000 Rupees is now easily over 2 lakhs a month and this guy has absolutely changed his life around by leveraging what he knows so he's on fire metaphorically speaking and the the fire strategy encourages us to find creative and better ways of increasing our savings rate the Second Step under the fire strategy is to spend wisely notice I didn't say don't spend I said spend wisely which means you need to identify what is an essential expense and what can be tagged as discretionary now people who practice Fire have a ton of helpful advice for us these include driving a good used car instead of a new one renting versus buying a house cooking at home rather than eating out track your daily expenses cancel unnecessary subscriptions Etc from what I've read these small steps can reduce your monthly expenses by up to 30 percent which if you choose to look at it differently is like getting a 30 incremented salary so you don't have to be stinky when it comes to your expenses but try to be a bit more rational about it and the third and final pillar in the fire system is the investment part now on a basic level the system requires advisors to invest as much money as you can and as early as possible so it's the principle of compounding at work here and this table here is a handy guide to how well your Corpus expands when you give it the necessary capital and a decent amount of time to grow now the fire method keeps this investing part ridiculously simple one you invest some money every month or as we call it you set up an sip a systematic investment plan and secondly this money is invested in a low cost Index Fund or ETF which in our case is either the nifty 50 or maybe a slightly broader Nifty 500 Index so essentially the focus here is to participate in the equity markets rather than actively trying to beat it which by my Reckoning should Fetchers and analyze return of 12 to 13 percent again the idea here is to maximize the returns which is why equities have been suggested but if that makes you a little uncomfortable then you can also settle for a mix of different asset classes which is something I explained in my video on asset allocation a few weeks back yet another investment you can make which is encouraged under the fire movement is on account of passive income dividends from stocks interest from your fixed deposits income from your blog your podcast YouTube channel monetization rental income are just some ways of making an Roi from physical or virtual assets now notice I have put this part under Investments and not income because passive income does require a lot of upfront work but once you do the hard work and you do it well one can expect a continuous stream of income over the next few years which will not only support your early retirement Ambitions but will also act as a safety net in fact there is something called an fi Ratio or the financial Independence ratio which largely means if your passive income is greater than your expenses then you're making some great progress on the path to financial Independence so to sum it up remember fire has three simple principles that you need to work on which is save more spend less and invest wisely if you're getting good value from this video then please do give this video a thumbs up and if you aren't a subscriber yet then do consider becoming one as I can then serve you videos as soon as they are released and also share with you some investing strategies tips and stories that are continually Post in the community section the original fire formula is based on the four percent rule which is the amount of saving you can safely withdraw every year without worrying that your money will run out for example let's say you are 29 years old and your monthly expenses are around 50 000 rupees if you want to retire at 40 then you have 11 years to accumulate a retirement fund so here's the math if household inflation is likely to grow by eight percent per annum then the 50 000 you spend now will rise to 1 lakh 16 000 rupees by the time you're 40.

So annually this comes to 14 lakh rupees and per the four percent rule it's 14 multiplied by 25 which means you need to accumulate a couples of three and a half crores to safely navigate through your retirement years or at least that's what the fire formula says now in my view there are some gaps with this four percent rule that I think we should all be aware of firstly this rule is okay for someone who has factored 25 maybe 30 years of retirement but if the retirement Horizon goes higher let's say 50 years for example then this formula starts getting a bit shaky and I've pinned a research study by Vanguard on this in the video's description secondly the four percent rule is a United States origination of the 1990s and has been tested on a historical basis when the yields on equities and Bonds were sufficiently high now we are not Americans and what works there will most likely not work for us which means there's an asset allocation and a market performance risk which needs to be accounted for and finally because each of us have our own preferences income goals saving patterns Etc I always felt it's important to have a customized fire implementation plan rather than picking something off the shelf which is why I created my own fire calculator which gives a clearer picture of how much I need to accumulate when can I idly retire how much withdrawals can I do on a monthly basis and at what point and in what circumstances my retirement money can run out so this obviously starts with the inputs and you need to type in your current age the age at which you want to retire and of course your life expectancy which I hope is strong and long then comes your current portfolio of Investments and this includes your mutual funds fds ppf EPF gold and other stuff and as a best practice kindly exclude the cost of the house where you will be staying post your retirement if you're still working then input the monthly savings and the annual increase you foresee input the expected returns from your investment the capital gain tax that can remain at 10 percent and finally have a view on how much will your expenses be in the first year of retirement and the expected household inflation rate and once we have these numbers keyed in as I have shown in this example the resulting output should clearly tell us three things one the amount of investment Corpus we need at the time of retirement which in this illustration is 2.2 crores at the age of 40.

Secondly we now have Clarity on how much can be spent on an early basis which starts from 12 lakhs so that's one lakh per month and it increases by eight percent every year and thirdly we get to know how sound or unsound this entire construct is like in this case our calculation shows that I'll run out of my money by the time I am 64 years old which is another way of saying that I need to rework my fire math which can include an increase in the monthly savings and the growth rate I can also consider extending my retirement age to a higher number let's say 45 years and finally I I can be a little careful with my expenses and instead of spending a lack of rupees maybe I can make do with 90 000. so there are many permutations and combinations you can look at but my suggestion is try to be a little conservative in your estimates especially when it comes to return on investment the inflation rate and the post retirement monthly expenses now for your benefit I have enclosed the link of this worksheet in the video's description it's a downloadable sheet all the formulas are open so feel free to change the numbers improve the formula if required add your own customization if it helps you but have a clear idea on when and where you need to be on the path to financial Independence so when I first heard and read about fire I was not a big fan of it I mean saving 50 to 7 20 percent of one salary is almost next to Impossible and I would have shut sharp had I not realized that as a method fire is quite flexible and can be used in many different ways so the calculator is one way and you can make a customized version of it but then there are more strategies there are more variants of the fire strategy and if you are interested then do read up on lean fire fat fire Coast fire and a few more of these in related articles that I've Linked In the video's description the point is and I myself realized a very late in life that many of us don't know when to retire how much is needed to retire which is why we continue working in a role or occupation that we don't enjoy much and that's where I think fire as a strategy might be the solution and it's just three things right increase your income and savings lower your expenses and get your Investments right so read up more about this concept in the Articles and websites I've added in the description and I sincerely hope you practice some sort of fire going forward if you found this video useful then do press the like button do subscribe to my channel share this video and I'll see you three days from now until then foreign

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Retirement Planning Home

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401K Explained in தமிழ் (US Retirement Series – 1)

This episode and next few episodes are going to be US specific episodes. All these US specific episodes will have US flag in their thumbnails. Indian audience, feel free to skip these episodes and save your time. US folks, there are 2 main retirement plans in USA. 1. 401K and 2. IRA. We will cover more in detail about IRA in another episode. In this episode, we will cover 401K in detail. Hi. My name is Vijay Mohan. You are watching – Investment Insights. 401K is a retirement plan offered thru employer. We will not be able to open a 401K account just by ourself like a brokerage account. We can contribute to a 401K, only if it is offered through our employer. Almost all employers offer 401K plan. Very few small companies do not offer 401K. How much can we contribute to a 401K? Each employee can save up to $20,500 per year.

If husband and wife both are working, both can contribute $20,500 each. People older than 50 can contribute more – $27,000/year. That is called as "Catch up contribution". Other than our contribution to 401K, many employers match up our contribution up to certain percentage. Let's say that an employer is matching up to 7%. If our salary is $100K, 7% of that would be $7,000. Let's say that we are contributing $20,500 to our 401k and maxing it out. Employer would have matched up the first $7,000 of that $20,500 and would have contributed that $7,000 to our 401K. So in total, our contribution $20,500 + employer match up contribution $7,000 = $27,500 would have gone into our 401K account. Employer match of $7,000 would not come under the contribution limit of $20,500. This match is over that contribution limit.

In this employer match, each employer has a catch called "Vesting Schedule". This vesting schedule defines when that extra amount matched up by the employer is going to actually credit in our account. Let's say that an employer has a vesting schedule of 2 years, then in that 2 years, the match up amount contributed by the employer will be in our account, but not vested. That means, if we leave the job within the 2 years of joining, then we will not get that matched up amount. But after 2 years, that matched up amount will be ours totally, even if we leave the job. Also, after that vesting period of 2 years, all money matched up by the employer will be vested (available) to us immediately. That means, there will not be any restriction over the matched up money after passing 2 years. The 2 years I am referring here is just an example. It will be different for every employer. So what is the advantage to us from this 401K? The advantage is, we do not have to pay the tax on the amount we are contributing to 401K.

But we should pay tax on withdrawal after retirement. What? No tax for the contributed money, but taxed on withdrawal? What benefit does that offer to us? Good question. To understand that, we should know about our tax bracket. What we are seeing here is 2022 Married Filing Jointly tax bracket. Let's say that our family income is $120,000. We will come under 22% tax bracket. That does not mean that we will be paying 22% tax for the whole $120,000 we earned. First 20,000 of $120,000 will be taxed at 10%. Next 63,000 will be taxed at 12%. Money earned over that will be taxed at 22% tax. So the 22% tax is charged for the top most dollar we made in that year. This is called as Marginal Tax rate. If we add up all the taxes for individual brackets of 10%, 12% and 22%, that comes out to $17,634. This is 14.7% of our total income $120,000. So actually we are paying only 14.7% of our income as tax. This 14.7% is called "Effective Tax Rate". May confuse between marginal tax rate and effective tax rate. Hope it is clear now. So when we contribute $20,500 to our 401K, it comes out of our top most tax bracket.

That means, the tax we saved from the contribution of $20,500 is 22%. $4510. If we withdraw the same $20,500 after our retirement, the tax rate for that would be 10%. Tax saved for contribution is 22%, while money coming out is taxed at 10%. The difference is 12% in our favor. Or in other words, we save tax in marginal tax rate for contribution and we pay effective tax rate while withdrawal. We all know that effective tax rate will be always lower than the marginal tax rate.

This is first advantage. Let's check out a sample calculation to understand the next advantage. Let's say that our family income is $120,000. Then federal marginal tax rate is 22%. Let's use Illinois state tax rate – 5%. For 401K contribution, not just the federal tax, we don't have to pay the state tax as well. Let's assume that our 401K will be growing at 8% growth rate. We are maxing out our 401K contribution every year by contributing 20,500/year. Tax savings from this contribution is 27%. $5535. We are continuing to do this till our retirement for 25 years. By the end of 25 years, our 401K balance would have reached 1 million 600,000 dollars. The $5535 that we saved every year in tax alone would have grown into $437,000. The absolute tax saved is 5355 * 25 = $138,000. The growth from that savings is approximately $300,000. Or in other words, just because we did not pay (deferred) the tax of $138,000, the extra growth we got from that is $300,000.

The growth of money by deferring (not paying the tax now) the taxes to pay later is called as "Tax deferred Compounding". This tax deferred compounding is 401K's second advantage. For these 2 advantages, we can contribute to 401K. We should. So far we have seen a regular pretax 401K. There are other flavors of 401K like Roth 401K and After tax 401K. We will dig deeper into that in the next episode. Thank You.

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401K to Gold IRA Rollover

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